Added: Jessamy Brien - Date: 12.02.2022 07:24 - Views: 45552 - Clicks: 9815
Lithuanian grammar retains many archaic features from Proto-Balto-Slavic that have been lost in other Balto-Slavic languages, and is consequently very complex. The following is a list of Lithuanian terms for properties and morphologicalwith their English translations or equivalents:. Lithuanian nouns are classified into one of two genders :. Lithuanian adjectives, numerals, pronouns and participles are classified into one of three genders :.
Since no noun can have a neutral gender, it is used with subjects of neutral or undefined gender:. The gender of a pronoun kas — 'who? The word kas uses masculine inflections, the other pronouns have their own specific paradigm. The nouns of the indefinite gender have feminine form inflections. The masculine gender is also the indeterminate gender as in many other Indo-European languages. This means that for an entire mixed group of objects belonging to masculine and feminine genders, the masculine gender is used. Note that there are many nouns that use masculine or feminine genders without any reason of biological genderfor instance, words that denote inanimate objects.
The masculine or feminine usage of these words is stable with few exceptions and doesn't depend on the will of a speaker. The Lithuanian language has two main ssingular and plural. It has also a dualwhich is used in certain dialects, such as Samogitian. Dual forms of pronouns used in the standard language are also optional. The pluralwhen it can be in contrast with the singular, indicates that there are many of the things denoted by the word.
But sometimes, when a word doesn't have the singularbeing a plurale tantum noun, the plural form doesn't indicate real singularity or plurality of the denoted object s. Adjectives and numerals also have the singular-plural distinction.
Their depends on that of the noun they are attributed to. The dual indicates a pair of things. Historically, the dual has been a full grammaticalparticipating as the third element in singular-dual — plural distinction. During the last century, [ clarification needed ] the dual was used more or less sporadically in Lithuanian, sometimes reaching the status of a full for agreement purposes, meaning the dual of noun required dual agreement in its adjectives or the dual of the subject required the dual of the verb. But in many more cases the dual was reduced to a nominal category explicitly indicating a pair of things, but not requiring dual agreement of adjectives or verbs.
The indefinite indicates that the same form of the word can be understood singular or plural, depending both on situation and on other words in the sentence. There are only few words that demonstrate indefiniteand the indefinite doesn't have its own forms in Lithuanian. These words are pronouns kas — 'who? All of them use inflections of the singular. The super-plural words are a few s and pronouns that indicate a counting not of separate things, but of groups of things.
These words are also used with plurale tantum nouns instead of plural words keliabudutrys and so onin which case they indicate not the plural of groups, but just the semantic plural or singular a word vieneri — 'one' only of the noun.
Lithuanian grammar makes a distinction between proper and common nouns. Only proper nouns are capitalized. Some nouns, for example sun and moon, can be both proper and common. There are no articles in Lithuanian. The genders of nouns are masculine and feminine. There are no strict rules governing the gender. There is no neuter gender " it gender"but there are a few words that can be applied to both genders equally. Most nouns have singular and plural s. There are some words that have only singular e. Most such words are abstract i. However, in some instances, for example poetic language, it is possible to use singular nouns in plural form.
Note: Plural or singular without the case means that the word or words can be declined in any case in plural or singular respectively, but Plural genitive means, that the second word remains undeclined. Nouns in Lithuanian language have 12 declension paradigms, in scholar grammar corresponding to five declensions which are defined by the inflection in singular nominative and genitive cases. Words with a suffix -men- are attributed to the third declensional pattern in these tables, but they are of the fifth, the singular can be used for all, but is not usual for all nom.
The singular instrumental is -imi, like in the third declension, while for masculine words of the fifth declension the proper ending is chosen to be -iu; but -imi can also be chosen for the words of the fifth declension. The s in the upper row mean accentuation types. For the third type the additional information is given in dictionaries.
The mark 3 without the letter added, is for words, stressed in the next-to-last syllable. The letter after is for polysyllabic words and says what type of stress the syllable has in those cases where the stress falls on the stem other cases receive it on the ending and how distant from the ending the syllable stressed is. The single digit with a letter means that the stress falls on the third syllable from the ending; if the stress falls on the fourth syllable from the ending, the mark is 34a or 34b, there are also nouns having stress in the fifth 35a, 35b and sixth 36b syllable from the ending.
The first declension also includes nouns stressed in the more distant from the ending syllable than the next-to-last, but their stress is steady through the cases and is always clear from the nominative singular. The palatalized variants of -as, -a, -us types, that is, -ias, -ia, -ius, are counted together with those having -j- before the inflectional ending: -j-as, -j-a, -j-us.
The letters f. The column under the abbreviation alt. In the tables below the possibilities of syllable nucleus of the next-to-last syllable and their accent is shown. But there are a few certain differences in the accentuation features of the nucleus sounds of the next-to-last syllable. Most of the vocals and diphthongs can have either of the accents: a start-firm or an end-firm. Short a, e sounds, when they are in a stem of a word and stressed, lengthen and have always an end-firm accent; i, u are short and there is no accentual differentiation in their stress.
The four different accentuation patterns are distinguished by two different colors in the rows of the table, their sequence is from the top to the bottom — I, II, III, IV. The words of each accentuation type are given in the following sequence of the declensional types:. Some spaces of the tables are not filled, but this does not mean that there are no words which would fit. The sounds a, e end-firm when stressed and i, u short can not be start-firm and consequently the word having them in the next-to-last stressed syllable can not be of the first and the third accentuation pattern.
The s are written after some of the words in the tables. They mean an alternative existent accentuation pattern and are given only for some of the words, which have an alternative accentuation in a language. Notice that the type of accentuation of a word is shown by the place in the table and the added means only an alternative accentuation type, which is not necessarily the main one. Some of the alternative accentuation patterns of a word are used equally then they are given not in brackets heresome are known from dialects, not preferred then they are given in brackets.
The alternative forms are most usually present between the and accentuation patterns, same in the type of an accent. The fourth accentuation paradigm can be result of a shift of the third paradigm. The shift can happen following nivellation of the two accents, a loss of accentual contrast. In a case of nivellation of the start-firm and end-firm accents the distinction between the and loses its ground, because in a place of the stress the 1 with the 2, the 3 with the 4 acentuation groups differ only in a few cases.
In Lithuanian language adjectives have three declensions determined by the singular and plural nominative case inflections. Adjectives are matched with nouns in terms of s, genders, and cases. The neuter gender is formed simply by eliminating the last consonant -s from the masculine gender forms.
All the adjectives except most -inis type adjectives can have pronominal definite forms that cannot acquire the neuter form:. They have their own separate declension paradigms. Pronominal adjectives have a variety of purposes in modern Lithuanian. But they are rarely used this way, as demonstrative pronouns serve better for this purpose. This does not apply in case of the neuter gender adjectives because nouns do not have neuter gender. Such adjectives are used in combination with other parts of speech having no gender infinitive, some pronouns or in zero subject sentences and tend to describe a general environment.
Adjectives that end in -is do not have the neuter gender. Most of the time neuter gender adjectives are written just like feminine adjectives. However, vocally, neuter gender is distinct by different stressing. Also neuter gender does not have any s or cases, and it is mostly used for predicatives. The Lithuanian language has five degrees of comparison. The three main degrees are the same as in English language.
Note that there are no irregular adjectives and all adjectives have the same suffixes. All such adjectives still need to match the nouns in terms of case,and gender. Neuter gender comparative degree is the same as adjective comparative degree. Lithuanian has no grammatical category of animacy.
Pronouns including personal ones jis, ji, jie, jos he, she, they replace any noun, regardless if it is not animate people, animals, objects etc. Whom did you see? In Lithuanian every single verbal form can be derived from three stems: infinitive, 3rd person present tense and 3rd person past tense. The 3rd person of every conjugatable verbal form in Lithuanian has no distinction between s: all the singular, dual and plural forms have merged into one single form. Declinable forms such as compound tenses and passive structureshowever, must match according to gender and.
This is a shared feature with its closest relative, the Latvian language.
Modern Lithuanian grammarians no longer consider the 3rd person as having an ending, instead it is now called the "final stem vowel" to which a personal ending is attached in order to make the 1st and the 2nd persons:. In reality, however, the attachment of the respective ending to the 3rd person stem is not straightforward and requires additional conversion, e.
Each one of these conversions are being represented in the following conjugation tables. This is the basic tense in Lithuanian which describes present or ongoing actions or, sometimes, actions without definite tense. Its forms and stress patterns are always derived from the 3rd person of the Present tense. The accentuation of all persons always corresponds to the accentuation of the 3rd person.
This is the basic tense in Lithuanian which describes past actions ongoing or complete. Its forms and stress patterns are always derived from the 3rd person of the Past tense. Compound tenses are periphrastic structures having temporal meanings usually relative to actions indicated by other verbs.You are beautiful in lithuanian
email: [email protected] - phone:(203) 652-6279 x 6230
English to Lithuanian Meaning :: beautiful